Pythagorean Primes

Last Week, we had a look at Pythagorean triples. Remember: a Pythagorean triple is three natural numbers (positive integers) such that a^2+b^2=c^2. Most of the times, even with a and b natural numbers, c is irrational. Sometimes c is prime; sometimes c^2 is. Is either frequent?

Let’s begin with finding triples where c is a prime number. We basically run last week’s program (or rewrite it in Mathematica). We find that there are only 89 such triples for 0<a,b\leqslant{1000}. They're barely visible (click to embiggen):


The first few primes are given by sequence A002144 of Sloane’s On-line encyclopedia of integer sequences. They are also all of the form 4k+1. This form of primes is useful for quadratic residue probing in hash tables, for example.

How about triples where c^2 is prime? (it implies that c is irrational). Intuitively, we might think that they must be rare, but intuition is often lead astray. Indeed:


That’s a big surprise (to me, at least): about 1 out of 10 (squared) hypotenuse is square. Is this a useful way to generate (random) prime numbers efficiently?

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