Last week we started to look at the problem of azimuth alignment on olden compact cassette tape drives, and how this misalignment affects the sound. Let’s now have a look at how azimuth affects the frequencies.
In many occasions, we have to estimate a probability distribution from observations because we do not know the probability and we do not have enough a priori knowledge to infer it. An example is text analysis. We may want to know the probability distribution of letters conditional to the few preceding letters. Say, what is the probability of having ‘a’ after ‘prob’? To know the probability, we start by estimating frequencies using a large set of observations—say, the whole Project Gutenberg ASCII-coded English corpus. So we scan the corpus, count frequencies, and observe that, despite the size of the corpus, some letter combinations weren’t observed. Should the corresponding probability be zero?